2015年9月3日 星期四

The surrender of Ming-Cheng Kingdom

The surrender of the Tung-Ning Kingdom was not as straightforward as commonly known, i.e., a simple capitulation announcement from Koxinga's grandson and heir 鄭克塽Cheng Ke-Shuang. As in Koxinga's negotiation with Coyett, Cheng Ke-Shuang must also deal with 施琅Shi Lang, the Ming-Cheng turncoat.

In Shi's report to the Qing Court, he stated,

"…查鄭克塽年尚幼樨,未諳大體,操縱指揮,權皆出于劉國軒、馮錫範二人。茲特令朱紹熙回台灣傳諭,果真心投誠,必須劉國軒、馮錫範來臣軍前面降,將人民土地悉入版圖。其偽官兵遵制削髮,移入內地,聽遵朝廷安輯。…(dated Aug 3, 1683, or 康熙Kang-xi 22nd year, double 6th month, 11th day)

In other words, Shi blamed everything on Liu Guo-shian and Feng Shi-feng, the true power behind Cheng. Both of them must therefore openly surrender. The Ming-Cheng people and land would be ruled under Qing. All officers and soldiers would shave their head in the Qing style and moved inland.

On Sept 17, 1683, Cheng issued the first report/announcement, namely,

招討大將軍延平王鄭克塽謹奏

"伏以論域中有常尊,歷代紹百王為得統。觀天意有攸屬,興朝宅九土以受符。誠五德之推移,為萬彙所瞻仰者也。伏念先世自矢愚忠,追懷前代之恩,未沾盛朝之澤。是以臣祖成功,篳路以闢東土,臣父經,靺韋而雜文身。寧敢負固重險,自擬夜郎;抑亦保全遺黎,孤栖海角而已。迨至先人弛擔,稚子承祧,常思畏天之恩,莫求縮地之術。茲蓋伏遇皇帝陛下高覆厚載、仁育義懷。底定中邦,如旭日升而普照;掃擴六宇,雖浮雲翳而乍消。苟修文德,以來遠人;寧事勝心,而焚海內。乃者舳艫西下,自揣履蹈之獲愆;念此氣血東來,無非霜露之所墜。顏行何敢再逆,革心以表後誠。昔也威未見德,無怪鳥骸於虞機;今者誤已知迷,敢後麟遊於仁圃。伏願視天地萬物為一體,合象胥寄棘為大同。遠柔而邇能,形民固無心於醉飽,貳討而服舍,依魚自適性於淵泓。夫且問黃□之海波,豈特誓丹誠以皦日為已哉。"

He professed young and ignorant having been raised by his grandfather and father, and conceded the heaven-mandated benevolent rule of the Qing emperor. And that he was really just a minion who would now pledged his most sincere loyalty to Qing.

Shi, however, was a practical man, on Sept 19, 1683, he again reported to the Qing Court, that

"…茲7月15日,鄭克塽復差偽兵官馮錫珪、偽工官陳夢煒,劉國軒遣胞弟偽副使劉國昌,馮錫範遣胞弟範偽副使馮錫韓,同曾斐、朱紹熙賚送降本稿前來澎湖軍前回話。…本月27日,偽藩鄭克塽復差馮錫珪、陳夢煒同吳啟爵、常在賚具降本一道,及繳延平王冊一副,印一顆,輔政公鄭聰印一顆,武平侯劉國軒印一顆,忠誠伯馮錫範印一顆,左武衛將軍何祐印一顆。…"

The seals (chops) of the Ming-Cheng officials including the Yan-Ping kingship had been received.

After this, on Oct 5, 1683, Cheng Ke-Shuang surrendered a second time:

招討大將軍延平王臣鄭克塽謹奏

為舉國內附、仰冀聖恩事。竊惟臣生自海邦,稚懵無識;謬繼創垂之緒,有乖傾向之誠。邇者,樓船西來,旌旗東指;簞壺緩迎於周旅,干羽煩舞於虞階。自省重愆,誠為莫贖;然思皇靈之赫濯,信知天命有攸歸。逆者亡、順者昌,迺覆載待物之廣大;貳而討、服而舍,諒聖王與人之甚寬。用遵往時之成命,爰邀此日之殊恩;冀守宗祧以勿失,永作屏翰於東方。業有修表具奏外,及接提督臣施琅來書,以復居故土,不敢主張。臣思既傾心而向化,何難納土以輸誠。茲特繕具本章,并延平王印一顆、冊一副及武平侯臣劉國軒印一顆、忠誠伯臣馮錫范印一顆,敬遣副使劉國昌、馮錫韓齎赴軍前繳奏;謹籍土地人民,待命境上,數千里之封疆悉歸土宇,百餘萬之戶口並屬版圖。遵海而南,永息波濤之警;普天之下,均沾雨露之濡。實聖德之漸被無方,斯遐區之襁負恐後。
獨念臣全家骨肉,強半孺呱;本係南人,不諳北土。合無乞就近閩地方,撥賜田莊、廬屋,俾免流移之苦,且獲養贍之資;則蒙高厚之生成,當誓丹青以啣結。至於明室宗親,格外優待;通邦士庶,軫念綏柔;文武諸官,加恩遷擢;前附將領,一體垂仁;夙昔仇怨,盡與蠲除;籍沒產業,俱行賜復:尤期廣推寬大之仁,明布維新之令,使夫群情允愜,共鼓舞於春風;萬彙熙恬,同泳游於化日。斯又微臣無厭之請,徼望朝廷不次之恩者也。為此,激切具本奏聞,伏候□旨。

His request of relocating back home to Hokkien was denied and together with his family, were held hostage in Beijing. His loyal followers, most were seamen, were banished to various penal colonies in mainland China to die.

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