2011年2月14日 星期一

Tansui Jinja淡水神社

The long lost history of the Japanese shrines in Danshui is finally restored, thanks to the efforts of Mr N Hirokawa (the photos below are downloaded from his blog site here) and many others.

We now know the very first Shindo shrine in Danshui was the 淡水稲荷社 [Tansui I-nali sha]. 稲荷 [literally rice and lotus] of course refers to agriculture and the shrine seems to trace its origin back to the ancient Qin immigrants to Japan. In any case, the one in Danshui was established on Nov 15, 1906. It can be seen on a small elevation behind the 公會堂 (Ko-kai-do, built by ChoSan's father in 1928) in this photo:

[In the picture are the Harada and the Yamamoto families, the latter then visiting from Japan. And to the left and right are Mr Hirokawa's mother, then a teenager, and grandmother, the manager of 公會堂 from 1930-41.]

The address of the Inali Jinja was 臺北州淡水郡淡水街淡水字砲臺埔二八番地ノ一. On the same plot of land [see sketch below; source: 莊家維(成功大學建築所) 碩士論文《近代淡水聚落的空間構成與變遷--從五口通商到日治時期》], a separate shrine, the 淡水社Tansui-sha, was built and dedicated on Oct 10, 1911 [this according to 淡水郡管內要覽, 1930]. It was only a tiny structure; although it was the predecessor to the far more formal and elaborately built 淡水神社Tansui Jinja.

The construction of the new Tansui Jinja in 油車口 started in 1936. In the photo below, the Japanese immigrants are seen celebrating the arrival of royal timber on a cart:

[This picture was taken at 油車口 near the entry to the now Danshui Golf Course. In it, Mr Kinoshita Seigai (one with the white hat next to the drummer) and Mr Hirokawa's father (one with the megaphone on the cart) can be readily identified. On the right is of course Danshui River and Guan-yin Mountain.]

This shrine honored 北白川宮能久親王, 明治天皇, 大物主命, and 崇徳天皇, built in the classical Japanese style with a roofed gate, roofed walls, and a court yard in front of the main hall :

This complex was destroyed in 1974 to make room for Taipei County Martyrs' Memorial台北県忠烈祠. Only the stone steps and the foundation survived.

The shrine was completed on March 11, 1939, and consecrated on June 1, followed by public celebrations. Needless to say, all Japanese residents young and old were on site to take part. The following are the photographic records of the evening of the shrine dedication (immediate below) and the celebratory gathering of Tansui citizens:

[Below: Mrs Harada, Mr Hirokawa's grandmother in ceremonial garment/headgear, posing next to one of the two isidoros in front of the torii, at the entry to the Jinja.]
[Above: In subsequent years, Mr Hirokawa as a child, was carried by his Dad to participate in the ceremonies for students.]

The 1900 census showed that 161 Japanese families then residing in Danshui with 360 males and 224 females (total=584). There were 1,098 Taiwanese families at the same time with 5,500 men and women. In other words, approximately 10% of Tansui-jin were originally from mainland Japan. It is unclear what the ratio was in latter years; although the Nihon-jin were certainly in the minority. By 1946, all Japanese were gone and with them a chapter of the immigrant history of Danshui.

2011年2月7日 星期一

Koxinga and Manila

[Above: The vision of Blessed Guala, by Cosimo Gamberucci, from the Great Cloister of Santa Maria Novella, the principal Dominican church of Florence, ca. 1580]

History is replete with what-if's. For example, what if Koxinga had lived long enough and conquered Manila? What would the history of SE Asia be?

According to 臺灣通史[The Comprehensive History of Taiwan] by the great historian Lien-Heng [連橫 (1878-1936)]:

"At first, Roman Catholic priest 李科羅 (Victorio Rici, or in Spanish: Victorio Riccio, 1621-1685) was preaching in Amoy. Koxinga treated him with respect and invited him to be a consul. At that time, there were several hundred thousand Chinese residing in Luzon who had long been mis-treated by the Spaniards [Note: especially under the ruthless administration of Governor General Diego Fajardo Chacón, from 1644 to 1653)]. Koxinga's generals proposed that Luzon be annexed. Koxinga therefore sent Rici to Manila to demand the Spanish Governor General to pay tributes but also secretly to plot a revolt by the Chinese - to be supported by warships and soldiers from Taiwan. The plan was exposed, however, and the Spaniards heightened their defense and dispatched soldiers [Note: from Mindanao Island] to destroy Manila to avoid capture/occupation. By then, the Chinese were in uprising who fought in pitched battles for several days but failed in the end. Tens of thousands were killed. Some escaped on little boats and sailed to Taiwan with many drowned on the way. Koxinga seized the opportunity to pacify the Spaniards when Luzon was still in turmoil. The Spaniards were also worried that Koxinga might attack, so an emissary traveled with Rici to Taiwan to sue for peace. Koxinga's general staff preferred punitive actions; however, before the invasion could be carried out, Koxinga passed away [Note: on July 23, 1662]."

The key player in this drama, 李科羅 Victorio Rici was a member of 利瑪竇's extended family [Note: 利瑪竇 (Italian name: Matteo Ricci, 1552-1610), a Jesuit from Italy who travel to China to preach in 1583 and stayed for life)]. Fr Rici was born in S. Maria a Cintoia of Florence and had studied in Fiesole and Rome. In 1654, he went from Manila to Amoy to build a Dominican Church and administer to Koxinga's soldiers.

In 1662, Fr Victorio Riccio was appointed the ambassador to Manila and on May 5th, he practically handed an invitation to surrender from Koxinga to the Spanish Governor General demanding for the submission of the Spanish Colony. The document reads as follows: 

A directive from Koxinga of the Great Ming to Governor General Manrique de Lara of Manila:

...I (Koxinga) have now driven the Dutch out of Taiwan. Numerous Dutchmen were killed for unwise resistance. If they had capitulated sooner, they would not have suffered such a disastrous fate...,

...You (the Spaniards) are no different from the Dutch, from another tiny state. In Taiwan, I have in my command several hundred thousand soldiers and one thousand warships. I was about to invade Manila; however, in view of your emissary arriving to beg for trade treaties, a behavior different from the Dutch, I am therefore empowering Father Rici to ask that you submit to my rule and pay yearly tributes. If there is any trickery on your part, my ships will quickly arrive and destroy you totally, just like what I have done to the Dutch. By then it'll be too late. The choice is yours...

永曆十六年三月七日  (Dated and signed by) 國姓爺[Koxinga]

The Spanish Governor General of the Philippines Islands was Sabiniano Manrique de Lara who succeeded the despotic Diego Fajardo Chacón and ruled between July 25, 1653 and Sept 8, 1663.

This was a story with no ending. Fr Victorio Rici spent the rest of his natural days in the Chinese District in Manila and died there peacefully.