Dutch presence in Danshui
Visitors to the Ft San Domingo紅毛城 in Danshui will know that it was initially built by the Spaniards in 1628. The name was in honor of Saint Dominic, founder of the Friars Preachers [the Order of Preachers (OP)], commonly known as the Dominicans. It was later re-built by the Dutch (finishing in 1646) and re-named Ft Anthonio. The fortress was subsequently repaired and occasionally maintained throughout the Ming-Cheng dynasty and the Qing era. The Brits then leased it from the Qing in perpetuity in 1867/8 and the original name in Spanish was officially retained. To the locals, however, the fortress is always the 紅毛城 [literally City of the Red-haired].
On Aug 21, 1642, the Dutch, after an unsuccessful try one year earlier, attacked the Spanish stronghold Ft San Salvador [located on Palm Island or 社寮島, now 和平島] in Keelung again with 690 soldiers on board of 5 galleons and 2 junks. The Spaniards capitulated after 5 days of intense fighting. Keelung was then ruled by Colonial Governor Hendric Harconse and its garrison commanded by Lt Kriec Kenheecq. The Dutch fortified Ft San Salvador and christened it Ft Noort Hollant [North Holland]. Soon after, 50 soldiers were left to guard the fortress with another 80 dispatched to occupy Danshui. In Feb, 1644, in an attempt to conquer the Senar Tribe in Danshui [in the area now 中興里 and 鄧公里] and other Aboriginal tribes in the region, Lt Kenheecq staged a show of force that, however, had backfired resulting in the loss of 21 Dutch soldiers and 49 Han and Aboriginal mercenaries. Kenheecq was replaced by Captain Pieter Boon who arrived from Tayouan [Tainan] with construction materials and laborers to reinforce Ft Anthonio. This was quickly aided by the arrival of 7 war ships with 300 Dutch soldiers and 10 Han mercenaries on board. And after two months of battles, except the Senar tribe, most other tribes in Danshui, Keelung and Ilan submitted to the Dutch rule and were forced to pay enormous annual tributes.
In 1661, Koxinga succeeded in driving out the Dutch from Taiwan; the latter, however, had never accepted the defeat. In 1664, they actually returned to the undefended Keelung to re-build the fortress, arm it with 24 guns, and guard it with 240 men.
In 1665, Cheng Jing鄭經 (1642-81), Koxinga's son and heir, sent a naval force from Tainan to take Keelung. The Dutch responded by increasing the defense stationed in Ft North Holland (to 387 men by 1667). However, with the trade with Foochow cut off by the Qing, the hostility of the locals owing to years of ruthless Dutch rule, and the difficulties in re-supplying from Batavia, the Dutch finally gave up and retreated to their home base in Indonesia in Oct, 1668. Min-Cheng General Huang-An黃安 led a joint navy-army force to Danshui and took over Ft Anthonio. The presence of the Dutch in Danshui/Taiwan finally came to an end. By 1669, the whole northern Taiwan came under the control of the Tung-Ning Kingdom.
In 1681, Ming-Cheng General He-You何祐, based on 紅毛城, was charged with the defense of Keelung and Danshui who, in the end, yielded the command to the Qing in 1683.
Danshui then became increasingly dominated by Han immigrants arriving mostly from Hokkien.
Posted by EyeDoc at 下午11:45